Universal testing machine, what is it and why is it so called?

A universal testing machine is a machine similar to a press, capable of subjecting materials to tensile, compression or bending tests to measure their properties. The force exerted is achieved by means of compression plates or grips (conical or lateral) driven by screws (manual grips) or hydraulic system (hydraulic grips).

The function of the universal testing machine is to test the resistance of various types of materials. For this purpose, it has a servo control system (servo stroke) that applies controlled loads on a specimen (model of pre-established dimensions) and measures the deformation and the load at the moment of breakage in the form of a graph.

What types of tests can be performed? For example, in the laboratory, scale specimens are used, which preserve the complete properties of the material to be tested. They can be tensile, compression or flexural.

Different types of tests: tensile, compression, shear, bending, peeling, tearing, cyclic and flexural ductility.

And some properties that are evaluated are:

1- Elasticity

2- Strain

3- Elongation

4- Hardness

5- Embutibility

6- Resilience (Deformation energy)

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