One of the most widespread techniques in quality control is the tensile test. This method consists of clamping a specimen of the material to be studied, applying opposing forces on its two ends using universal tensile machines and finally obtaining the force-strain and stress-strain curves.
What is obtained when performing a tensile test?
From these curves we can measure, mainly, the elastic deformations of the specimen, its creep or yielding, its plastic deformations and its stringency, among others.
If the process has been carried out properly, with the equipment and the procedure indicated by the ISO 6892-1 standard, these measurements and other complementary subjections should allow us to obtain all the data we need about the material:
- The proportionality limit, which reflects the stress at which non-proportional deformations occur.
- The elasticity limit, which shows the force or stress at which reversible deformations occur.
- The permanent deformation limit, which is the minimum stress that causes permanent deformation.
- The loss of proportionality limit, the stress point from which the elongation is no longer equal to the percentage of initial length.
- Tensile strength, which marks the maximum stress that the material allows during the test without breaking.
- The breaking strength, which indicates the stress applied at the moment of breakage.
- Elongation at break, which is the ratio between the increase in length of a specimen after breakage and its pre-test length.
- The ultimate strain, which captures the decrease in cross-section caused by breakage.
- The work of deformation, which encompasses the stress required to break the material and the material’s capacity to resist.
In this way, any existing doubts about the theoretical designs are dispelled. Obtaining this data will allow engineers to design elements that will not fail to perform the job for which they have been created.
Few laboratories have the equipment to perform the process in an optimal way. If you want to be one of them, do not hesitate to consult the Servosis product catalog, where we have all kinds of testing machines from 1 to 150 tons.
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